One of the challenges Ontario Métis face is that not enough research has been conducted and published about the unique history and development of Métis communities in Ontario as a part of the larger Métis Nation. In Phase I of its recent consultations on Métis identification and registration, MNO citizens stressed the need for the MNO to provide more information about Métis history specific to Ontario.
In its efforts to provide at least some of the research that has been done on Ontario Métis to date, the following historic reports have been posted to the MNO’s website. These reports include historical research on Métis commissioned by the MNO, the Ontario Government or the Government of Canada (by either the Department of Justice [“DOJ”] or Indian Affairs and Northern Canada [“INAC”]).
By posting these reports on its website, the MNO is not taking any position with respect to the conclusions in some or all of these reports. Further, posting these reports are “without prejudice” to the political and legal positions the MNO take or may take with respect to rights-bearing Métis communities in Ontario. These reports are provided for information purposes only. Some of them may assist individuals in better understanding Ontario Metis history or in identifying historic Metis ancestors for the purposes of completing their citizenship application with the MNO Registry.
It must also be stressed that these reports are by no means comprehensive in scope. Many parts of Ontario have not yet been researched. Some of the reports only focus on specific location, rather than entire region. As well, for many of these reports, the MNO and its communities were not involved in the research and little to no information about the contemporary history of Métis communities in Ontario is included. These reports should be used with these limitations in mind.
However, regardless of the limitations of these reports, the MNO hopes that by publishing them online at least the limited research that has been done on Ontario Metis to date will begin to become more accessible to MNO citizens and communities.
The MNO notes that while these historic reports provide general narratives on various Métis communities in Ontario and some helpful information and leads on various Métis individuals and families within those communities, the MNO Registry still requires primary source documentation (i.e. Census records, birth and death certificates, church records, HBC journals, etc.) in order to establish an applicant’s ancestral connection to a historic Métis ancestor. A reference to an individual within one of these reports does not, in and of itself, confirm a historic Métis ancestor. The primary source documents to support the report’s statements or conclusions on identified historic Métis ancestors must be provided to the MNO Registry in order to verify an individual was identified as Métis, “Halfbreed”, etc. in historic times.
Rainy Lake/Rainy River/Lake of the Woods/Lac Seul/Treaty #3 Reports
• DOJ Report – Lake of the Woods Region
• MNO Report – Rainy Lake/Rainy River
• Ontario Report – Rainy Lake & Kenora
• Ontario – Historic Métis of Rainy Lake and Rainy River (2002)
• Lytwynn Article – Fort Frances Métis
• DOJ Report – Lake Superior
• DOJ Report – Lake Superior (French)
• INAC Report – Robinson Treaty Metis
• Ontario Report – Michipicoten
• MNO Report – Lake Superior Region (Ray, June 2011)
• MNO Report – North Lake Superior Métis (Jones, March 2015)
Sault Ste. Marie Reports
• Powley Case Report – Victor Lytwyn
• Powley Case Report – Arthur Ray
• Powley Case Report – Joan Holmes
• Sault Ste, Marie Names
James Bay-Abitibi Temiscamingue Reports
• DOJ Report – James Bay
• DOJ Report – James Bay – Appendix A
• DOJ Report – James Bay – Appendix B
• Ontario Report – Timmins, Cochrane and Abitibi Region
• Ontario Report – Mattawa and Environs
• Ontario Report – Sudbury & Espanola
• MNO Ontario Canada – Report on Mattawa Nipissing (May 2015)
Georgian Bay Reports
• Ontario Report – Georgian Bay
• MNO Report – Penetanguishene Report
• Settlement of Penetanguishene - Micheline Marchand
Kawartha/Ottawa River Reports
• Ontario Report – Burleigh Falls
• DOJ Report – Outaouais Report
Additional Research Reports
• Ontario Report – Review of Reports
• Ontario Report – Annotated Bibliography